WSSD Implementation Document: Text relevant to Trade Unions
What follows are preliminary excerpts of the text adopted at WSSD which are relevant to the trade union lobbying efforts at the Johannesburg Summit related to the greater recognition of the social & employment dimensions, workplace actions & occupational health and safety – as linked to public health, and to roles for the International Labour Organisation (ILO), Governments, and multinational companies. The quotes below are taken from the agreed text. However, the bold headings are ours. The only compilation made available during the WSSD itself is the Draft Plan of Implementation provided in a document entitled, “Extract from the future draft report of the Main Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development”, 2 September 2002 (02-57131 (E))
Re-Confirmation of Agenda 21 including Chapter 29 for Workers and Trade Unions
Par.1 We strongly confirm our commitment to the Rio Principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21 and the program for further implementation of Agenda 21. We also commit ourselves to achieving the international agreed goals including those contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992. (Note: One of several such articles; Chapter 29 of Agenda 21 defines a role for Trade Unions)
Focus on Workplace Action, including Workplace Assessment & Information Systems
Par.17 Enhance corporate environmental and social responsibility and accountability. This would include actions at all levels to:
- (a) Encourage industry to improve social and environmental performance through voluntary initiatives, including environmental management systems, codes of conduct, certification and public reporting on environmental and social issues ….
(d) Develop workplace-based partnerships and programs including training and education programs.
Par.18 Encourage relevant authorities at all levels to take sustainable development considerations into account in decision-making … This would include action at all levels to:
- (e) Use environmental impact assessment procedures.
The above are more specifically followed up with calls for various types of environmental (Par 104a), cross-sectoral or integrated (Par. 103b) assessments to be performed as national instruments (Par. 119), or to develop a better understanding of issues related to water (Par 26, 35, 60c), environment & development linkages (Par. 91d), technology needs (Par. 99c), chemicals (Par. 22), climate change (Par. 35, 103c), marine life (Par. 34b, 34c), air pollution (Par. 37a), public health (Par. 37a, 47h), agriculture (Par. 38b), forestry (Par. 43g), and disaster relief (Par. 59a).
Mechanisms, Tools, Means of Implementation that Reflect Trade Union Proposals
Par.19 Call upon governments, as well as relevant regional and international organisations and other relevant stakeholders to implement … the recommendations and conclusions of the Commission on Sustainable Development concerning energy for sustainable development adopted at its ninth session … This would include actions at all levels to:
- (n) Utilize financial instruments and mechanisms, in particular the Global Environment Facility (GEF) within its mandate, to provide financial resources to developing countries and small island developing states to increase their capacity needs for training, technical know how, and strengthening national institutions in reliable, affordable, economically-viable socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy, including energy efficiency and conservation, renewable energy and advanced energy technologies …..
Par.35 An integrated multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, is an essential element of a safer world in the twenty-first century. Actions are required at all levels to:
(a)Strengthen the institutional capacities of countries and promote international joint observation and research through improved surface-based monitoring and increased use of satellite data, dissemination of technical and scientific knowledge, and the provision of assistance to vulnerable countries;
- (e) Improve techniques and methodologies for assessing the effects of climate change and encourage the continuing assessment of those adverse effects by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
(j) Promote cooperation for the prevention and mitigation of preparedness for, response to and recovery from major technological and other disasters, with an adverse impact on the environment in order to enhance the capabilities of affected countries to cope with such situations. (Note: Implications for “Just Transition’ measures?)
Par. 59(b) Provide support to African countries to enable them to better deal with the displacement of people as a result of natural disasters and conflicts, and put in place rapid response mechanisms;
Par.81 Welcome the successful and substantial third replenishment of the GEF, which will enable it to address the funding requirements of new focal areas and existing ones and continue to be responsive to the needs and concerns of its recipient countries, in particular developing countres, and further encourage GEF to leverage additional funds from key public and private organisations, improve the management of funds through more speedy and streamlined procedures and simply its project cycle.
Par.91. Continue to enhance the mutual supportiveness of trade, environment, and development, with a view to achieving sustainable development through actions at all levels to:
- (c) Encourage efforts to promote co-operation on trade, environment and development, including in the field of providing technical assistance to developing countries, between the secretariats of WTO, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP and other relevant international environmental and development and regional organizations.
Text that Reflects Trade Union Positions on Specific Issues
Par.20 Promote an integrated approach to policy making at national and local levels for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development, including policies and planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems, and goods delivery networks, with a view to providing safe, affordable and efficient transportation, increasing energy efficiency, reducing pollution, reducing congestion, reducing adverse health effects and limiting urban sprawl, taking into account national priorities and circumstances.
Par.21 Prevent and minimise waste and maximum reuse, recycling and use of environmentally friendly alternative materials, with the participation of government authorities and all stakeholders …. This would include action at all levels to:
- (b) Promote waste prevention and minimisation by encouraging production of reusable consumer goods and biodegradable products and developing the infrastructure required.
Par.33 Enhance maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from pollution by actions at all levels to:
(b)Invite States to ratify or accede to and implement the conventions and protocols and other relevant instruments of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) relating to the enhancement of maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from marine pollution and environmental damage caused by ships, including the use of toxic anti-fouling paints and urge IMO to consider stronger mechanisms to secure the implementation of IMO instruments by flag states;
(c)Accelerate the development of measures to address invasive alien species in ballast water. Urge IMO to finalise the IMO International Convention on the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments.
Par.42 (Preservation of Biodiversity and the Convention on Biodiversity)
- (k) Encourage and enable all stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of the objectives of the Convention, and in particular, recognise the specific role of youth, women and indigenous and local communities in conserving and using biodiversity in a sustainable way;
Par.43. Forests and trees cover nearly one third of the Earth’s surface. Sustainable forest management of both natural and planted forests and for timber and non-timber products is essential to achieving sustainable development and is a critical means to eradicate poverty, significantly reduce deforestation, and improve food security and access to safe drinking water and affordable energy; highlights the multiple benefits of both natural and planted forests and trees; and contributes to the well-being of the planet and humanity. Achievement of sustainable forest management nationally and globally, including through partnerships among interested Governments and stakeholders, including the private sector, indigeneous and local communities and non-governmental organisations, is an essential goal of sustainable development.
Par.60 Promote integrated water resources development and optimize the upstream and downstream benefits therefrom, the development and effective management of water resources across all uses and the protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, including through initiatives at all levels, to:
- (a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation that give priority to the needs of the poor, with stable and transparent national regulatory frameworks provided by Governments, while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders and monitoring the performance and improving the accountability of public institutions and private companies; and develop critical water supply, reticulation and treatment infrastructure and build capacity to maintain and manage systems to deliver water and sanitation services, in both rural and urban areas;
Promoting Chemical Safety and Harmonisation
Par.17 Renew the commitment, as advanced in Agenda 21, to sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle and of hazardous wastes for sustainable development and for the protection of human health and the environment, inter alia, aiming to achieve by 2020 that chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimisation of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment, using transparent science-based risk assessment procedures and science-based risk management procedures, taking into account the precautionary approach, as set out in principle 15 of the Rio Declaration … This would include action at all levels to:
(a)Promote the ratification and implementation of relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste, including the Rotterdam Convention, etc. ….
- (c) Encourage countries to implement the new globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of chemicals as soon as possible with a view to having the system fully operational by 2008;
(d) Encourage partnerships to promote activities aimed at enhancing environmentally sound management of chemicals and hazardous wastes, implementing multilateral environmental agreements, raising awareness of issues relating to chemicals and hazardous wastes, and encouraging the collection and use of additional scientific data;
(d)Encourage development of coherent and integrated information on chemicals, such as through national pollutant release and transfer registers;
Par.44. Mining minerals and metals are important to the economic and social development of many countries. Minerals are essential for modern living. Enhancing the contribution of mining, minerals and metals to sustainable development includes actions at all levels to:
(a)Support efforts to address the environmental, economic, health and social impacts and benefits of mining, minerals, and metals throughout their life cycle, including workers’ health and safety, and use a range of partnerships, furthering existing activities at the national and international levels, among interested Governments, intergovernmental organisations, mining companies and workers, and other stakeholders, to promote transparency and accountability for sustainable mining and minerals development.
Par.62 Achieve sound management of chemicals, with particular focus on hazardous chemicals and wastes, inter alia, through initiatives to assist African countries in elaborating national chemical profiles, and regional and national frameworks and strategies for chemical management and establishing chemical focal points.
Recognising a Role for/Promoting Decent Employment, Core Labour Standards
(Under “Poverty Eradication’) Increase decent employment, credit and income for the urban poor through appropriate national policies, and equal opportunities for women and men.
Par.6c Develop national programmes for sustainable development and local and community development, where appropriate within country-owned poverty reduction strategies, to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations. These programmes should reflect their priorities and enable them to increase access to productive resources, public services and institutions, in particular land, water, employment opportunities, credit, education and health;
Par. 6e Develop policies and ways and means to improve access by indigenous people and their communities to economic activities, and increase their employment through, where appropriate, such measures as training, technical assistance and credit facilities. Recognize that traditional and direct dependence on renewable resources and ecosystems, including sustainable harvesting, continues to be essential to the cultural, economic and physical well-being of indigenous people and their communities;
Par.9(b) Provide assistance to increase income generating employment opportunities, taking into account the ILO Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.
Par.11 Take immediate and effective measures to eliminate the worst forms of child labour as defined in ILO Convention 182, and elaborate and implement strategies for the elimination of child labour that is contrary to accepted international standards..
Integration of the Social Dimension
Efforts will also promote the integration of the three components of sustainable development – economic development, social development and environmental protections. (Note: One of several similar quotes).
Par.122c. The international community should strengthen and better integrate the three dimensions of sustainable development policies and programmes, and promote the full integration of sustainable development objectives into programmes and policies of bodies that have a primary focus on social issues. In particular, the social dimension of sustainable development should be strengthened, inter alia, by emphasizing follow-up to the outcomes of the World Summit for Social Development and its five-year review, and taking into account their reports, and by support to social protection systems;
Par. 140.Strengthening of the international institutional framework for sustainable development is an evolutionary process. It is necessary to keep under review relevant arrangements; identify gaps; eliminate duplication of functions; and continue to strive for greater integration, efficiency and coordination of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development aiming at the implementation of Agenda 21.
Reflecting Trade Union Priorities for Public Health and Linking Public Health to Workplace Health & Safety
Par.44. Mining minerals and metals are important to the economic and social development of many countries. Minerals are essential for modern living. Enhancing the contribution of mining, minerals and metals to sustainable development includes actions at all levels to:
(b)Support efforts to address the environmental, economic, health and social impacts and benefits of mining, minerals, and metals throughout their life cycle, including workers’ health and safety, and use a range of partnerships, furthering existing activities at the national and international levels, among interested Governments, intergovernmental organisations, mining companies and workers, and other stakeholders, to promote transparency and accountability for sustainable mining and minerals development.
Par. 47 Strengthen the capacity of health-care systems to deliver basic health services to all, in an efficient, accessible and affordable manner aimed at preventing, controlling and treating diseases, and to reduce environmental health threats, consistent with national laws and cultural and religious values, taking into account the reports of recent United Nations conferences and summits, and of special Sessions of the General Assembly. (Note: Trade unions cooperated with the Women’s Major Group to win this wording at the WSSD) This would include actions at all levels to:
(c)Promote equitable and improved access to affordable and efficient health-care services, including prevention, at all levels of the health system, essential and safe drugs at affordable prices, immunization services and safe vaccines, and medical technology,;
- (d) Improve the development and management of human resources in health-care services;
(e) Promote and develop partnerships to enhance health education with the objective of achieving improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010, with the involvement of United Nations agencies, as appropriate;
(g) Target research efforts and apply research results to priority public health issues, in particular those affecting susceptible and vulnerable populations, through the development of new vaccines, reducing exposures to health risks, building on equal access to health-care services, education, training and medical treatment and technology, and addressing the secondary effects of poor health;
(k) Launch international capacity-building initiatives, as appropriate, that assess health and environment linkages and use the knowledge gained to create more effective national and regional policy responses to environmental threats to human health;
(m) Strengthen and promote the ILO and World Health Organisation (WHO) programmes to reduce occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses, and link occupational health with public health promotion as a means of promoting public health and education;
Par.48 Implement, within the agreed time frames, all commitments agreed in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted by the General Assembly at its twenty-sixth special session, emphasizing in particular the reduction of HIV prevalence among young men and women aged 15-24 by 25 per cent in the most affected countries by 2005 and globally by 2010, as well as combat malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases by inter alia:
(d)Protecting the health of workers and promoting occupational safety, by inter alia, taking into account, as appropriate, the voluntary ILO Code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work to improve conditions of the workplace;
Par.58 Mobilize financial and other support to develop and strengthen health systems that aim at:
(b)Making available necessary drugs and technology in a sustainable and affordable manner to fight and control communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and trypanosomiasis, as well as non-communicable diseases, including those caused by poverty;
Par.94 Address public health problems affecting many developing and least developed countries, especially those resulting from HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, while noting the importance of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, where it has been, agreed that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent WTO Members from taking measures to protect public health. Accordingly, while reiterating our commitment to the TRIPS Agreement, we reaffirm that the Agreement can and should be interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive of WTO Members´ right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.
Par.110 Provide financial assistance and support to education, research, public awareness programmes and developmental institutions in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to:
- (a) Sustain their educational infrastructures and programmes, including those related to environmental and public health education;
Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production
Par.13 Governments, relevant international organisations, the private sector, and all major groups should play an active role in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns.
Par. 14 Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacities of ecosystems ….
(a)Identify specific activities, tools, policies, measures and monitoring and assessment mechanisms, including, where appropriate, life-cycle analysis and national indicators for measuring progress ….
- (d) Develop awareness raising programmes on the importance of sustainable production and consumption patterns, particularly amongst youth and the relevant segments in all countries, especially in developed countries, through inter alia, education, public and consumer education, advertising and other media, taking into account local and national values;
(e)Develop and adopt, where appropriate, on a voluntary basis, effective, transparent, verifiable, non-misleading and non-discriminatory consumer information tools to provide information relating to sustainable consumption and production, including human health and safety analysis. These tools should not be used as disguised trade barriers;
Par.41 Promote sustainable tourism development, including non-consumptive and eco-tourism … This would include actions at all levels to:
(b)Develop programmes, including education and training programmes, that encourage people to participate in eco-tourism, enable indigenous and local communities to develop and benefit from eco-tourism, and enhance stakeholder cooperation in tourism development and heritage preservation, in order to improve the protection of the environment, natural resources and cultural heritage;
Language on Corporate Accountability and Globalization
Par.45 Globalization offers opportunities and challenges for sustainable development. We recognise that globalization and interdependence are offering new opportunities to trade, investment, and capital flows and advances in technology, including information technology, for the growth of the world economy, development, and improvement of living standards around the world. At the same time, there remain serious challenges, including serious financial crises, insecurity, poverty, exclusion and inequality within and among societies. The developing countries and countries with economies in transition face special difficulties in responding to those challenges and opportunities. Globalization should be fully inclusive and equitable, and there is a strong need for policies and measures at the national and international levels, formulated and implemented with the full and effective participation of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to help them respond effectively to those challenges and opportunities. This will require urgent action at all levels to:
- (b) Encourage ongoing efforts by international financial and trade institutions to ensure that decision-making processes and institutional structures are open and transparent;
(d) Support the International Labour Organization and encourage its ongoing work on the social dimension of globalization, as stated in paragraph 64 of the Monterrey Consensus.
Post-WSSD Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development
(Note: Reflecting trade union proposals about the future of the CSD, and the participation of Major Groups – including trade unions – in any future Plan of Action.)
Par.120. An effective institutional framework for sustainable development at all levels is key to the full implementation of Agenda 21, the follow-up to the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and meeting emerging sustainable development challenges. Measures aimed at strengthening such a framework should build on the provisions of Agenda 21 as well as the 1997 Programme for its further implementation and the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and should promote the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, taking into account the Monterrey Consensus and relevant outcomes of other major United Nations conferences and international agreements since 1992. It should be responsive to the needs of all countries, taking into account the specific needs of developing countries, including the means of implementation. It should lead to the strengthening of international bodies and organizations dealing with sustainable development, while respecting their existing mandates, as well as to the strengthening of relevant regional, national and local institutions.
Par.121. Measures to strengthen sustainable development institutional arrangements at all levels should be taken within the framework of Agenda 21 (Note: Chapter 29, Workers and Trade Unions) and should build on developments since UNCED, and should lead to the achievement of, inter alia, the following objectives:
- (b) Integration of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in a balanced manner;
(f) Increasing effectiveness and efficiency through limiting overlap and duplication of activities of international organizations, within and outside the United Nations system, based on their mandates and comparative advantages;
(g) Enhancing participation and effective involvement of civil society and other relevant stakeholders in the implementation of Agenda 21, as well as promoting transparency and broad public participation;
(h) Strengthening capacities for sustainable development at all levels, including the local level, in particular those of developing countries;
(i) Strengthening international cooperation aimed at reinforcing the implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit.
Par.122. The international community should:
- (a) Enhance the integration of sustainable development goals as reflected in Agenda 21 and support for implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit into the policies, work programmes and operational guidelines of relevant United Nations agencies, programmes and funds, GEF and international financial and trade institutions within their mandates, while stressing that their activities should take full account of national programmes and priorities, particularly those of developing countries, as well as, where appropriate, countries with economies in transition, to achieve sustainable development.
(c) Strengthen and better integrate the three dimensions of sustainable development policies and programmes and promote full integration of sustainable development objectives into programmes and policies of bodies that have a primary focus on social issues. In particular, the social dimension of sustainable development should be strengthened, inter alia, by emphasising follow-up of the outcomes of the World Summit for Social Development and its five-year review, and taking into account their reports, and by support to social protection systems.
(f) Promote corporate responsibility and accountability and the exchange of best practices in the context of sustainable development, including, as appropriate, through multi-stakeholder dialogue, such as through the Commission on Sustainable Development, and other initiatives;
Par.126. (Role of the Economic and Social Council) Pursuant to the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and Agenda 21 provisions regarding the Economic and Social Council and General Assembly resolutions 48/162 and 50/227, which reaffirmed the Council as the central mechanism for the coordination of the United Nations system and its specialized agencies and supervision of subsidiary bodies, in particular its functional commissions, and to promote the implementation of Agenda 21 by strengthening system-wide coordination, the Council should:
- (c) Make full use of its high-level, coordination, operational activities and the general segments to effectively take into account all relevant aspects of the work of the United Nations on sustainable development. In this context, the Council should encourage the active participation of major groups in its high-level segment and the work of its relevant functional commissions, in accordance with the respective rules of procedure.
Par.127. (Role and function of the Commission on Sustainable Development, the UN Agency which has fully-accepted the participation of trade unions) The Commission on Sustainable Development should continue to be the high-level commission on sustainable development within the United Nations system and serve as a forum for consideration of issues related to integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development. Although the role, functions and mandate of the Commission as set out in relevant parts of Agenda 21 and adopted in General Assembly resolution 47/191 continue to be relevant, the Commission needs to be strengthened, taking into account the role of relevant institutions and organizations. An enhanced role of the Commission should include reviewing and monitoring progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and fostering coherence of implementation, initiatives and partnerships.
Par.128. Within that context, the Commission should give more emphasis on actions that enable implementation at all levels, including promoting and facilitating partnerships involving Governments, international organizations and relevant stakeholders for the implementation of Agenda 21.
Par.130. In relation to its role in facilitating implementation, the Commission should emphasize the following:
- (b) Serve as a focal point for the discussion of partnerships that promote sustainable development, including sharing lessons learned, progress made and best practices;
(d) Provide a forum for analysis and exchange of experience on measures that assist sustainable development planning, decision-making and the implementation of sustainable development strategies. In this regard, the Commission could give consideration to more effective use of national and regional reports;
X. Par.131. With regard to the practical modalities and programme of work of the Commission, specific decisions on those issues should be taken by the Commission at its next session, when the Commission’s thematic work programme will be elaborated. In particular, the following issues should be considered:
- (b) Continuing to provide for more direct and substantive involvement of international organizations and major groups in the work of the Commission;
Par.138. (Role of International Institutions, including World Bank, etc.) To promote effective implementation of Agenda 21 at the international level, the following should also be undertaken:
- (b) Encourage partnership initiatives for implementation by all relevant actors, to support the outcome of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. In this context further development of partnerships and partnership follow-up should take note of the preparatory work for WSSD.
Par.142. Intra-regional coordination and cooperation on sustainable development should be improved among the regional commissions, United Nations Funds, programmes and agencies, regional development banks, and other regional and subregional institutions and bodies. This should include, as appropriate, support for development, enhancement and implementation of agreed regional sustainable development strategies and action plans, reflecting national and regional priorities.
Par.143. In particular and taking into account relevant provisions of Agenda 21, the regional commissions, in collaboration with other regional and subregional bodies, should:
- (d) Continue to promote multi-stakeholder participation and encourage partnerships to support the implementation of Agenda 21 at the regional and sub-regional levels.
Par.146.bis All countries should also promote public participation, including through measures that provide access to information regarding legislation, regulations, activities, policies and programmes. They should also foster full public participation in sustainable development policy formulation and implementation. Women should be able to participate fully and equally in policy formulation and decision making.
Par.150. (Participation of Major Groups) Enhance partnerships between governmental and non-governmental actors, including all major groups, as well as volunteer groups, on programmes and activities for the achievement of sustainable development at all levels.
Par.152. Promote and support youth participation in programmes and activities relating to sustainable development through, for example, supporting local youth councils or their equivalent, and by encouraging their establishment where they do not exist.